Luxor is a city of history and civilization that has its roots in the depths of history, witnesses to the greatness of the Egyptian human being who has been known for seven thousand years, which is considered an open university for human history in the different prehistoric and even modern times.
The city of Luxor consists of two parts, the eastern mainland (city of living) where there were palaces of kings and people’s houses, and the western mainland (city of the death), where there are graves and funerary temples, and both mainlands separated by the River Nile.
It is the eastern bank of the Nile, and gained its importance in that it was the center of the city of Thebes, one of the most important capitals of Egypt Pharaonic, and was known as the land of life, where they live and live and
practice their daily routine, so spread the palaces of kings and temples, houses of the people, and also the house of a million years, and because of the belief in the immortality of the temples, it was built using heavy stones and high columns, while palaces and houses were built of mud bricks, and this explains the existence of temples only.
- Luxor Temple: One of the largest and most beautiful Egyptian temples, it was founded in 1400 BC during the reign of the family 18, and was dedicated to the worship of the so-called The Trinity of Thebes (god Amun-Re and his wife and son), and successive kings dictated the rule of Egypt by sponsoring this temple and repairing the ruins, and the addition of other buildings to him, such as the addition of King Ramses II to add the open courtyard, the edifice, and obelisks. Temple of Luxor is one of the most preserved temples to date, and it is reflected in the style of the layout of the temples of the Pharaohs.
- Karnak Temple: Karnak Temples Complex, world-renowned as Karnak, is a hallmark of Luxor, a huge gathering of temple ruins, chapel places, monumental columns and other buildings. It is 3 km
from Luxor. It is the main place of worship for the Trinity of Thebes, whose head was Amun.
The temple was built during the reign of the 18th Dynasty, but all the kings were expanding it, so the Karnak temples were transformed into a complete guide and collection showing the stages of the development of ancient Egyptian art and distinctive Pharaonic architecture from its inception and up to the Roman era.
- Luxor Museum: Located on the Nile Corniche Road in the middle of the city, it is considered one of the most beautiful regional museums in Egypt.It was opened in 1975 and consists of two floors. The first floor
includes a collection of rare monuments unearthed in Luxor, such as the granite head of the statue of Amenhotep III, the upper floor includes a collection of statues of Akhenaten and a number of carved stones known as the hills, which were part of one of the temples of Akhenaten in the east Karnak and some furniture, ornaments, amulets, utensils and some Coptic funerary paintings.
- Mummification Museum: The first of its kind in the world, it tells the story of the embalming and tools used by the ancient Egyptian to save the bodies, as well as a large number of mummies and coffins. The Mummification Museum, located to the north of Luxor Temple, was established in 1995 and opened in 1997. The museum was designed to showcase the ancient Pharaonic mummification techniques applied by ancient Egyptians to many creatures, not just humans. It displays mummies for cats, fish, and crocodiles, and the museum contains more than 150 ancient Pharaonic pieces.
It was called the city of the dead, so it contains many tombs and funerary temples, and the most prominent features of the Valley of the Kings, Valley of the Queens, Valley of the nobles, Remisium, Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, Medinet Habu, Monastery of the city, and the Colossi of Memnon The West Bank is characterized by its distance from the city center, which is far from the hustle and bustle, so the visitor feels calm and relaxed in that area, and enjoy the wonderful nature, and the view of the Nile at sunset gives the scene the character of magic takes mind.
- Colossi of Memnon: They are huge statues in the middle of a 20-meter-high free-space. It was widely believed that the statues of the Ethiopian warrior Memnon, who participated in the Trojan war and killed Achilles according to Greek mythology, it’s where the status gotthe names, but the statues are of King Amenhotep III, one of the kings of the family. 18 The statues were overseeing a funerary temple erected by the king, but this temple has disappeared over time, leaving only a sandstone painting located behind the statues.
- Deir el Medina: Deir al-Madina is a village inhabited by a group of workers and labors who participated in the construction of the cemetery of Thebes. It is located in the southern part of it and dates back to the era of the modern state. The village is still retaining a large part of its streets and buildings, in addition to it contains a number of family tombs in addition to a temple dedicated to the worship of the god Hathor, and is located in
the northern part of the monastery of the city, and later turned into a monastery, hence the name of the area
- Medinet Habu: The city of Habu is one of the most important ancient archaeological sites that display ancient Pharaonic history and not only because it contains one of the most important and most powerful and famous and most beautiful funerary temples in Pharaonic Egypt, the temple of Ramses III, built for the worship of the god Amun, and the temple contains inscriptions tell the story of the maritime victories of King Ramses III But it is believed that the region or the entire city had a great sanctity of the ancient Egyptians. The area also includes
many monuments from ancient Pharaonic to Coptic.
- Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut: It is one of the temples distinctive in form and erected by Queen Hatshepsut in memory of her memory several years after taking over Egypt, and was dedicated to the
worship of the god Amun. But the most distinctive design of the temple is its dependence on the
system of balconies, not the external columns, where the temple consists of 3 floors, and excluded from the pyramid (or obelisk) and the burial chamber, but added to the booths for worship and rituals.
The location of the temple’s construction was chosen in the arms of the mountain, unlike other temples.
- Ramesseum: The Temple of Ramesseum derives its name from the great king Ramesses the Second, who ordered its construction to commemorate his memory. It was primarily dedicated to the worship
of the god Amun. The greatest evidence of this is the remnants of the huge statue of Ramses II made of black granite, which was made of one piece but fell and crushed, leaving only the base, which indicates that the
statue was about nineteen meters high, and weighs about a thousand tons. This base is inscribed with scenes representing the captives following the King’s victory in the famous Battle of Kadesh.
- Temple of Seti I: It was the first temple built in Thebes, and ordered the establishment of King Seti I to commemorate his memory, and the memory of his father King Ramses I, but King Seti I died before the completion of the temple, and completed construction of King Ramses II, and was dedicated to the worship of the Trinity of Thebes, the god Amon and his wife and their son. But what distinguishes this temple is its general design, which takes the form of a right angle, which is different from the rest of the temples, which always take the form of a rectangle.
- Valley of the Kings: The valley is located in a barren area between huge hills in the desert of limestone, covered with traces of dry canals dating back thousands of years. The site has a cemetery of 120 rooms, all of which carved on the walls of the finest eye may see from the murals. In this arid mountainous region lies a long history. The Valley of the Kings as the tombs of the burial of the Pharaohs dates back to 1550 BC, has been chosen on the site because of its proximity to the royal temples, and is likely that the first Pharaonic ruler buried in it «Thutmose I», and the last of the burial «Ramses XI».
- Valley of the Queens: The ancients called it the place of beauty, and was dedicated to the burial of queens and princesses and a number of women of the nobility from the Pharaonic families 18 to 20, and it is likely that this site was chosen because of its proximity to the Valleyof the Kings, in addition to the presence of a sacred cave dedicated to the god “Hathor” at the entrance to the valley, The ancient Egyptians believed that the cave gave the dead another life. The Valley of the Queens consists of the main valley, which includes 91 cemeteries, in addition to the sub-valleys of 19 other cemeteries, most notably the tomb of Queen Nefertari, which is the largest cemetery in the Valley of the Queens.
- Valley of the Nobles: It is an area dedicated to the burial of the most important statesmen and priests since the Pharaohs until the Roman era. Hence the importance of the valley of the nobles in that it reflects the different styles of building tombs in a large period of Egyptian civilization, and the inscriptions on the walls of the tombs reflect the role played by rulers Egypt in various periods in order to keep Egypt from its enemies. Among the most prominent tombs, the tomb of us and the Minister of Agriculture in the reign of Tuthmosis IV, and the tomb of Nakht, and was the first responsible for the wine industry during the reign of Tuthmosis IV, Tomb of Rakhmi Ra, the favorite minister of King Tuthmosis III.
SOUTH OF LUXOR
- Temple of Horus at Edfu: About 100 km south of Luxor and about 100 km before the arrival of Aswan, the Museum of Horus, the god of idol in Edfu, which was the most important city of the modern state, was ordered by Ptolemy III, and it took about a century to complete, which was completed during the reign of Ptolemy XIII In the first century BC, due to the frequent strife and revolutions. It is evident from the design of the temple and the inscriptions on its walls strongly influenced by pure Egyptian architecture and was not
affected by architecture by Greek architecture.
- Temple of Kom Ombo: The temple of Kom Ombo dates back to the reign of King Ptolemy VI, which he founded with the aim ofworshiping the god “Subic” and the god “Horus”, and this distinguishes the temple from other temples that the ancient Egyptians used to dedicate to worship only one god. The temple is located close to the governorate of Aswan and is characterized by ancient historical landmarks that highlight the clear
Roman civilization on its design and decoration, in addition to decorating the temple with Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions that are characterized by accuracy and harmony that illustrate their lifestyle
and high-end living.
NORTH OF LUXOR
Temple of Hathor at Dendera: It is also called the temple of the goddess Hathor, the goddess of love, beauty and motherhood of the ancient Egyptians, which was dedicated to his worship. The temple dates back more than five thousand years and is composed of several temples and religious buildings spread over an area of 40,000 square meters close to the banks of the Nile. Dendera temple is one of the largest temples in Egypt that was not affected by geographic factors or wars and is itself a legend in the art The architecture with its columns and inscriptions on the walls is unmatched by another temple in all of Egypt.