Egypt’s first president
Egypt’s first president was chosen from the ranks of the Free Officers Movement: Muhammad Naguib. However, Naguib’s tenure was short-lived, even though he did oversee the banning of all political parties; a change in the class system; help with poverty and illiteracy; and the banning of the Muslim Brotherhood; and in 1954 he was arrested, to be replaced by Gamal Abdel Nasser.
The period of Abdel Nasser
After the ending of the era of ancient Egypt, Nasser Egypt started to thrive; the Aswan High Dam was built; the Suez Canal was nationalised; an arms deal with Czechoslovakia was agreed, and the non-aligned movement was created. He stood firm against countries like the UK, USA, and Israel, but this firmness, along with his foreign and military policies, were behind the invasion by Israel in 1967. The ensuing war affected Nasser bad and he offered to resign as president, only withdrawing his resignation because of the demands of the people. Until his death, in 1970, Nasser was a more subdued man.
The period of Anwar El-Sadat
Anwar El-Sadat took over the presidency in Egypt after Nasser’s death. Another member of the Free Officers Movement, his new appointment was done without elections. During his tenure he had a close relationship with the USSR, though this was not a long-term treaty; and also launched another war against Israel, which was eventually ended by a peace treaty that was drawn up, in the United Nations, by the USA and USSR. After this, Sadat changed his outlook about Israel and preferred negotiation over confrontation; so much so that he ended up signing the Camp David Accords, bringing peace between Egypt and Israel. Though popular with most Egyptians, because of the economic reforms he brought in, there were many who were disillusioned with him: bread riots; sectarian violence; and reduction of subsidies on foodstuffs. On 6 October 1981, President Anwar El-Sadat was assassinated by Islamic extremists.
The period of Mubarak
Egypt’s fourth president was also a military man, and also elected without a democratic election. On the 14th October 1981, Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak, the Vice President since 1975 and the air force commander during the October 1973 war, was elected President of Egypt.
Changes in Egypt during Mubarak
Mubarak made many changes in Egypt, bringing the country more into the 20th Century. Improvements were made throughout the country, though not in the area between El Minya and Qena, which was being subdued because of its strong ties to the Muslim Brotherhood, as well as being the region from where Sadat’s assassin’s originated.